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Friday
Oct052018

PCI Express back on track with latest specifications 

Richard Solomon and Scott Knowlton are waiting for me in the lobby of a well-known Tel-Aviv hotel overseeing the sunlit Mediterranean Sea.  

Richard SolomonSolomon, vice chair of the PCI Special Interest Group (PCI-SIG), and Knowlton, its marketing working group co-chair, are visiting Israel to deliver a training event addressing the PCI Express (PCIe) high-speed serial bus standard. 

With over 750 member companies, PCI-SIG conducts several training events around the world each year. The locations are chosen where there is a concentration of companies and engineers undertaking PCIe designs. “These are chip, board and systems architects,” says Solomon. 

PCI-SIG has hit its stride after a prolonged quiet period. The group completed the PCIe 4.0 standard in 2017, seven years after it launched PCIe 3.0. The PCIe 4.0 doubles the serial bus speed and with the advent of PCIe 5.0, it will double again.

“We were late with PCIe 4.0,” admits Solomon. But with the introduction of the PCIe 5.0 standard in the first quarter of 2019, the serial bus’ speed progression will be back on track. “PCIe 5.0 is where the industry needs it to be.”

The latest training event is addressing the transition to PCIe 5.0. “User implementation stuff; the PHY, controller and verification IP,” says Knowlton. Verification IP refers to the protocols and interfaces needed to verify a PCIe 5.0-enabled chip design.  

 

Markets

PCIe is used in a range of industries. In the cloud, the serial bus is used for servers and storage. 

For servers, PCIe has been adopted by general-purpose microprocessors and more specialist devices such as FPGAs, graphics processing units and AI hardware. 

The technology is also being used by enterprises, with PCIe switch silicon adopted in data centres to enable server redundancy and failover.

 

PCIe 5.0 is where the industry needs it to be

 

PCIe is also being used for storage and in particular solid-state drives (SSDs). That is because PCIe 4.0 transfers data at 16 gigabit-per-second (Gbps) per lane and can be scaled in parallel, typically in a by-four (x4) or a by-16 (x16) lane configuration. 

The proportion of the SSDs that use PCIe is expected to grow from a quarter in 2018 to over three quarters in 2022, according to Forward Insights. Meanwhile, IDC forecasts that the SSD market will grow at a compound annual growth rate of 15 percent from 2016 to 2021.  

PCIe is also employed within mobile handsets and for the Internet of Things designs. PCI-SIG attributes its adoption for these applications due to its speed and lane-width flexibility as well as its power efficiency.   

 

Source: PCI-SIG

Bus specifications

The PCIe bus uses point-to-point communications. The standard uses a simple duplex scheme - serial transmissions in both directions that is referred to as a lane. The bus can be bundled in a variety of lane configurations - x1, x2, x4, x8, x12, x16 and x32 - although x2, x12 and x32 are rarely, if ever, used in practice. 

Scott KnowltonThe first two iterations of PCIe, versions 1.0 and 2.0, delivered 2.5 and 5 gigatransfers-per-second (GT/s) per lane per direction, respectively.

A transfer refers to an encoded bit. The first two PCIe versions use an 8b/10b encoding scheme such that for every ten-bit payload sent, only 8 bits are data. This is why the data transfer rates per lane per direction are 2Gbps and 4Gbps (250 and 500 gigabytes-per-second), respectively (see table).     

With PCIe 3.0, the decision was made to increase the transfer rate to 8GT/s per lane based on the assumption that no equalisation would be needed to counter inter-symbol interference at that speed, says Solomon. However, equalisation was needed in the end but that explains why PCIe 3.0 adopted 8GT/s and not 10GT/s.

Another PCIe 3.0 decision was to move to a 128b/130b scheme to reduce the encoding overhead from 20 percent to just over 1 percent. This is why the transfer rate and bit rate are almost equal from the PCIe 3.0 standard onwards (see table).

The recent PCIe 4.0 specification doubles the transfer rate from 8GT/s to 16GT/s while PCIe 5.0 will achieve 32GT/s per lane per direction. 

When more than one lane is used, the encoded data is distributed across the lanes. A PCIe controller is used at each end of a lane to make sense of the bits. Meanwhile, a PCIe switch, a separate chip, can be used when fan out is needed to distribute the point-to-point links.

 

Compliance testing and design issues 

Compliance testing of PCIe 4.0 will only occur in the beginning of 2019 even though it was standardised in 2017. Solomon says that this length of time is actually one of PCI-SIG's shorter periods. It takes time to refine the exact electrical testing to be used, he sys, and there is only so much that can be done until the silicon arrives.

Given that there are now 28Gbps and 56Gbps serialiser-deserialiser (serdes) technologies available, why were the PCIe 4.0 and PCIe 5.0 lane speeds not faster? Solomon says the latest PCIe standards were chosen to be multiples of the PCIe 3.0’s 8GT/s lane speed to ensure backward compatibility. 

That said, designing systems using PCIe 4.0 and PCIe 5.0 signalling speeds is a challenge. Printed circuit boards need to be multi-layer and used higher-quality materials while retimer ICs are needed to achieve signal distances of 20 inches. 

Solomon stresses that not all systems required such signal reaches; the dense electronics being developed for automotives that use AI techniques to make sense of their environment being one such example.

And with that, Solomon apologises and gets up: “I have a session to present”. 

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