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Tuesday
Mar072017

Stitching together disaggregated chips

The Optical Internetworking Forum (OIF) has begun work on a 112-gigabit electrical interface to connect chips in a multi-chip module.

The ultra-short-reach electrical interface for multi-chip modules adds to the OIF's ongoing CEI-112G project, started in August 2016, to develop a 112 gigabit-per-second (Gbps) serial electrical interface for next-generation optical modules. 

Source: Gazettabyte, OIF data. The year 2018 is an estimate.

The OIF is an industry organisation whose members include telcos, data centre operators, equipment makers and component companies. The OIF undertakes projects that range from high-speed interfaces, optical modules and flexible Ethernet through to programmable interfaces for Transport SDN. Each OIF project culminates in a published Implementation Agreement.

According to David Stauffer, of Kandou Bus and the OIF’s Physical and Link Layer Working Group Chair, the 112G multi-chip module initiative builds on earlier OIF work on a 56-gigabit ultra-short-reach (USR) interface that first addressed die-to-die communication. "We realised that there seems to be more than one application," says Stauffer. "The 112G project is expanded for these applications such that we will possibly end up with different solutions rather than just one."     

 

Multi-chip modules

It was during the 56G USR work that the OIF first heard from members about the challenges of designing a system-on-chip and the idea of taking functions off-chip. High-capacity Ethernet switch chips, for example, are becoming so complex that future designs will not be able to support the long-reach serialisers-deserialisers (SerDes) circuits used for input-output due to the resulting design exceeding the chip's power constraints. “They [chip makers] were starting to think about offloading functions such as SerDes from the system-on-chip,” says Stauffer.

State-of-the-art chip designs can also include functions that occupying significant die area. “To better optimise chip and system costs, people are starting to think about the concept of breaking up the system-on-chip into multiple chips that are better optimised for cost and yield,” says Stauffer. He cites as an example a next-generation system-on-chip that interfaces to long-reach SerDes or optics, performs sensor processing and has significant on-board logic.

David StaufferThe logic functions of such a chip are best implemented using an advanced 7nm CMOS process, yet SerDes design are not implemented in 7nm and won't be for some time yet. In turn, the sensor array may not even be implemented using a logic process. And if the logic circuitry occupies a significant die area, it may be more economical to split the logic into two chips, each of which will yield better. “Then I have a need for all these interfaces between these chips,” says Stauffer,

He stresses that the interfaces are split based on the the type of technology and on the size of the individual dies; the dies are not partitioned to minimise the bandwidth between them. This can result in significant bandwidth - terabits of capacity - between chips in the module. And to be cost-effective, the interfaces must be very low power.

Accordingly, interfaces between two logic chips or the logic function and the sensor array can require high bandwidth whereas interfaces to the SerDes may be a single lane and have different requirements in how it is clocked. “So there is some divergence in what may be the requirements,” says Stauffer. “The multi-chip module project allows for the fact that we may end up with two solutions.”

The OIF does not list companies involved in its projects. Kandou Bus is clearly one involved in the multi-chip module work, says Stauffer, and he points to similar work his company has done with Marvell but at lower rates. But a recent story in EETimes lists several companies.

 

Applications

Stauffer says there are several high-performance computing companies that are designing very high-end processing systems using new architectures. “They are going to use this stuff [multi-chip modules and 100G-plus interfaces] before it trickles down to the data centre,” he says.

For applications requiring sensor arrays, the sampling and control loops needed mean that in some cases the interface will need to support terabits-per-second of capacity, says Stauffer; the overall interface speed depending on the number of sensors in the array and the rate at which they sample.     

The OIF ultra-short-reach interface is expected to work up to 116Gbps. Some members also want the interface to drive optical devices. “There is going to be a single lane interface at 100G-plus and others that consist of many parallel lanes,” says Stauffer.

The interface will operate over distances of 1cm to 2cm depending on the interposer technology used in the multi-chip module. Using an organic interposer will enable a reach of up to 2cm whereas a silicon interposer the distances will be 1cm or less.

A silicon interposer can be seen as a chip designed solely to interconnect the chips that sit on top, says Stauffer. The advantage of a silicon interposer is that it can supports thousands of input-outputs. But depending on its size and yield, the silicon interposer can be expensive. It also has higher-loss channels, explaining its shorter 1cm reach.

In contrast, an organic interposer is more in line with traditional multi-chip modules, says Stauffer.  The interconnect density of an organic interposer is less than a silicon one due to the relatively large pad pitches it uses but the organic interposer is cheaper and has a lower insertion loss.  “The OIF is designing something that is suitable for both,” says Stauffer.

No timetable has been given as to the duration of the multi-chip module interface work. But Stauffer says there are companies that would use the electrical interface now if it were available. 

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